How Visual Schedules Help Children Excel

Visual schedules can be adapted for use with any age group from infants all the way to adults.

visual schedule

There are many benefits to using a visual schedule with children under your care. Visual schedules can be adapted for use with any age group from infants all the way to adults. They can be tweaked for individual needs.

What is a visual schedule? A visual schedule is a plan or routine for the major events in a day that uses pictures and words. For most children a schedule consists of meal times, self-care, and play times. A visual schedule takes the planned-out schedule or routine and creates a visual representation to follow. For older children and adults, this can be a simple list of things needing to be accomplished in order. The list may or may not have times listed for when to accomplish each task. For younger children pictures can be added to the list that they can identify the tasks. Visual schedules are adaptable to everyone’s needs.

There have been many studies published on the benefits of schedules and routines for children. A consistent daily schedule has been shown to increase children’s feelings of self-confidence and security, as well as lower anxiety. Long-term use of a daily schedule has been shown to improve organization and time management skills in older children and adults. Daily schedules have also been shown to increase family stability, emotional regulation, and social adjustments in older children and teen (1).

A visual schedule provides children with a sense of control. They can follow along and anticipate what is coming next in the day. A visual schedule also offers a reference to verbal instructions as the schedule remains posted for review. A visual picture allows younger children to take ownership of the routine. Adults work with the children to teach the meaning of the symbols and then let the children guide themselves using the pictures as reminders. It is recommended to include written words with the images to contribute to a print-rich environment and early recognition of letters and word associations.

Visual schedules can be put in place at the beginning of a child’s life and updating them helps facilitate communication. To implement a visual schedule, lay out a written schedule, detailing the general daily routine. This written schedule can include general categories such as meals, nap times, and play times, or can be more detailed to include diaper changes, hygiene care, and specific play activities (2). I start the first schedules in pencil and more general so that they are easier to adjust with time and the age of the child.

 Childrens xylophones

The next step is to add the pictures. I use actual photographs of objects, but drawings and clip art can also be used. Label pictures with large letters, print them out, and protect them for subsequent use. Protection can be achieved using a sheet protector over a full-page photo, laminating the photo, or even using packing tape to completely cover the photo. Make sure the images are large enough for the infant to handle the paper without being a choking hazard. Before an activity, show the infant the photo and tell them what you are doing.

As infants get old enough to interact with the photos, display them in the scheduled order, in reach of the child. Point at the picture before the activity, and read it, then point to the next photo, read it, and explain that that is what is next. The child will be able to start pointing with you as they get older.

Many toddlers can manage a schedule that is all on one page. Keep the schedule in a reachable place so the child to interact with it. l Include pictures and add a short description and times for each activity. Velcro can be used so the schedule can be updates and changed easily. Cards with pictures detailing activities such as Legos, Play Do, going to the zoo or visiting a playground are great visual schedules. A set of cards with different activities allows for variety in the routine and lets the child see changes ahead of time. Velcro style, adjustable visual schedules also work well for children in a school setting, where the schedule may need to be adjusted daily.

two young boys playing

As children get older and learn to read, the pictures can be left off, and the schedule transitions to written form. Preteens and teens can write or type out their own schedules. This allows the child to have control in how their schedule is laid out and lets the adults step back and give them some independence. Rather than reminding, or appearing to nag, the adult can remind the child to accomplish the items on their schedule.

Visual schedules can be a helpful tool for multiple ages. They are flexible and easily adapted to the needs of the child and the child’s family. They promote a sense of security and an understanding of expectations. Knowing what is going to happen each day allows a child to have a sense of control and helps to regulate emotions.

To learn more, a Learning Environments course is available with enrollment in the Advanced Childcare program.

  1. Malatras, Jennifer Weil, et al. “First Things First: Family Activities and Routines, Time Management and Attention.” Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 2016.
  2. Davies, Catherine. “Using Visual Schedules: A Guide for Parents.” IIDC – The Indiana Institute on Disability and Community at Indiana University, Indiana University Bloomington, 2008, www.iidc.indiana.edu/pages/using-visual-schedules-a-guide-for-parents.

5 Communication Tips for Busy Families with Nannies

Communication is critical in maintaining family routines and minimizing stress.

child on bikeFamilies today have busy schedules and the larger the family – the greater the challenge. Playdates, school, work meetings, cooking, sports, and summer vacations are just a few of the family activities and commitments that can create a hectic schedule but strong communications between families and nannies can help child routines go smoothly. Communication is critical in maintaining family routines and minimizing stress. Here are 5 tips to help busy families and nannies better communicate.

1. Face to Face Conversations. In this day of cell phones, texting, and emails, the benefits of a face to face conversation are sometimes overlooked. Taking a few minutes when transferring supervisor responsibilities can make a world of difference. Nannies can communicate the highlights of how the children were feeling and behaving while in her care and the family can share the key activities for the day. Remember to make eye contact and be aware of how your body image impacts the meaning of your words. Speak clearly and listen attentively. If you are receiving a lot of information, take notes and then restate the information to make sure your comprehension is accurate.

2. Communication center. A communication center provides a place help the family and nanny share information. A communication center can be a physical location such as a bulletin board, refrigerator, or cubby hole. It can also make use of today’s technology and be a group email list or a joint electronic calendar. The crucial element is that every family member has access and regularly checks the communication center. Nannies and Families must have access to the communication center. Sharing key information about activities and events with their locations and times help the nanny know when and where to care for the children so she can do the job successfully.

daily log3. Daily logs. A daily report may be a one-page template or a quick written note highlighting the activities and key points from the day. The contents of the daily log will differ based on the child’s age and the desires of the parents. It may include feeding, toileting, activities, completed homework, and any household management duties completed during the day, among other things. Unusual events such as symptoms of an illness or a fall at the playground, as well as any actions taken by the nanny such as administering medication or getting medical assistance should be listed. The daily log should be shared in the communication center. Of course – an emergency must be handled appropriately and then summarized later in the daily log.

4. Expense reports. Nannies should have access to money for childcare related expenses – whether it is petty cash or a prepaid card. An important part of the job is communicating how that cash is spent. There should be a defined process to track finances. A weekly report which includes all receipts for expenses is usually sufficient. The report should list the date, location of purchase, items purchased, and total amount spent. For family assistant positions that include shopping such as picking up dry cleaning, groceries, and putting gas in the car, the weekly report should list all the receipts with a general summary of the items purchased.

5. Work agreements. Each nanny position is unique with respect to job duties and expectations. A work agreement is a great tool that lists the job responsibilities and expectations which allows the families and nannies to align on expectations. Work agreements are developed between the nanny and the family with both sides agreeing to the contents. If you don’t have one already, take a few minutes to review a work agreement. For free templates, visit AmsleeInstitute.com/courses which has a 30-minute video on work agreements as well as templates for Sitters, full time nannies, and live-in nannies.

Successful communication between a nanny and the family is critical to successful completion of the nanny’s duties. Communicating with the children can set expectations for daily activities and routines resulting in consistency for the children. Successful communicating with family members reassures all involved that the children are receiving the best possible care.

To learn more, a Communicating with Families course is available with enrollment in the Advanced Childcare program at AmsleeInstitute.com.

About the Author. Michelle Dragalin. Michelle earned an Educational Specialist in Educational Technology from Walden University, Master of Education from University of Phoenix, Bachelor of Art in Special Education from Old Dominion University, and Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education from Bemidji State University. Michelle is a Texas elementary school teacher (PK-8) and has experience in Colorado elementary schools and working as a special education teacher. Michelle is an adjunct faculty member of Amslee Institute.

 

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